video games gallery from the last century

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EarlyComputers
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Early Computers

    Computers:30 ( :1 Games:1 :2 )    Art


Alpha Microsystems AM-100

Compucolor 8001

1976


Intelligent Systems Corporation (ISC) was started in 1973 by Charles A. Muench, to develop a color computer graphics terminal to compete with the mechanical Teletype and monochrome glass TTY terminals commonly in use at this time.

Their first product, advertised in February of 1976, if not earlier, was the Intecolor 8001 professional intelligent CRT terminal - a $1,395 kit to be assembled by the purchaser, featuring a huge 19-inch RCA delta-gun CRT. The system came with 4K of RAM memory as standard.

It wasnt until December of 1976 when the Intecolor 8001 color terminal could be expanded from a computer interface device into a complete stand-alone computer: For an additional $1,295 ($2,690 total), the Intecolor 8001 could be converted into the Compucolor 8001 - an expanded, stand-alone micro-computer with built-in BASIC programming language.


 Price: US$2,690
CPU: Intel 8080 @ 2MHz
Memory: 4K - 32K RAM
Display: built-in 19-inch color CRT
80 x 48 text, 8 colors
192 x 160 graphics, 8 colors
Ports: one (or two) RS-232 ports
Storage: external floppy tape
OS: Compucolor BASIC

Compuduct Rainbow

Compupro Godbout S100

DEC PDP-1

1970


 Lenguajes None
CPU CPU was composed of 12 interlinked Register Boards
Velocidad 1 MHz (0.5 MIPS)
RAM 4 K of 12 bit words
Modos de Texto Depending of the terminal used
Tamaño/Peso 48 (W) x 55 (D) x 84 (H) cm. / 150 Kgs.
Puertos de entrada/salida 110 Baud serial interface
Almacenamiento interno None
Fuente de alimentación Built-in 780 Watts Fuente de alimentación unit
Perifericos Memoria boards up to 32 Kwords
Precio $18.000 (Basic version)

Donner Scientific Company Model 30

1956

Heathkit H100

Heathkit H11

Heathkit H120

Heathkit H8

1977


he H8 was the first computer available from Heathkit, released in late 1977. Computer systems from other manufacturers were also available as kits, but the practice was quickly falling out of favor. Most were available only as fully-assembled systems.

Although the H8 was relatively inexpensive at $379, the stock H8 included only the chassis and the CPU card.
At least one H8-1 memory board with 4K of RAM ($140) must be installed to run any appreciable software programs.
To use an audio cassette drive for data storage, the H8-5 Serial I/O card ($110) must be installed.
To upgrade to the floppy drive system, at least 16K of RAM must be installed.

For reliability, the CPU board came pre-assembled, but everything else was available in kit form. In 1978 the H-17 dual-floppy drive ($675) became available - previously only an audio cassette recorder could be used for data storage.

Heathkit H9 Videoterminal

Intecolor 3600

Intercolor 8001

1976

Micromation Z-Plus

Mupid

1981


The MUPID (Multipurpose Universal Programmable Intelligent Decoder) was originally mainly marketed as a Prestel (or BTX as it was called in Austria and Germany) terminal for the Austrian post office (that operated this service).

However, contrary to numerous dumb videotext terminals used in various European countries, this one was actually a true home computer featuring a Z80 microprocessor, BASIC, a large amount of memory (128kB), a colour video interface and several I/O ports. It could be connected to any colour TV set and provided 1200/75 baud modem, tape recorder and parallel printer interfaces. An external floppy drive unit was also available.

Mupid 2

NCR Safari 3115

NorthStar Horizon


The NorthStar Horizon is reported to be the first microcomputer to ship with internal diskette drives.

PolyMorphic System 8813

PolyMorphic Systems Poly-88

1976


With the release of their CPU card, PolyMorphic began selling complete systems.
Their first was the Poly-88, housed in a 5-slot S100 chassis, with additional side-mounted S-100 connectors for the purpose of joining chassis together.
This unit earned the nickname orange toaster due to its orange metal cover, and the fact that the S-100 cards generated noticeable heat.
The Poly-88 was available in kit form, or assembled. It was originally called the Micro-Altair, but after objections from MITS, manufacturers of the Altair, the name was changed.

Rockwell AIM-65

1976


 Lenguajes Optional Basic ROM
Teclado Full-stroke Teclado
CPU Rockwell 6502
Velocidad 1 MHz
RAM 4 KB (up to 32 KB of static RAM)
ROM 12 KB
Modos de Texto 1 line of 20 chracters (LED screen)
Sonido None
Puertos de entrada/salida Application bus, expansion bus, ROM connector
Fuente de alimentación Needs four Fuente de alimentación voltages: +5v, +12v, -12v, and +24v for the printer
Precio $375

SCELBI-8H

1974


SCELBI was an early model of microcomputer based on the Intel 8008 processor. The company SCELBI (derived from SCIentific-ELectronics-BIology) Computer Consulting in 1973, by Nat Wadsworth. The SCELBI 8H was marketed in 1974 and was delivered either as an assembled unit or as a kit, with five basic circuit boards and provision for memory expansion to 16 kB (16,384 bytes). The company offered input/output devices including a keyboard, teleprinter interface, alphanumeric oscilloscope interface, and a cassette tape interface for data storage. The basic system only used a front panel with 11 switches and LEDs for input and output.

The company also offered a version of the BASIC programming language that ran on the platform, called SCELBAL. Optional modules for strings and transcendental functions allowed the system to operate in small memory configurations. SCELBAL was sold in book format, allowing it to be used on any similar 8008 or 8080 based platform.

The initial model 8H was discontinued at the end of 1974 and an improved model 8B was introduced. Fewer than 150 board sets and assembled systems were ever sold.
Later in 1975, the availability of systems based on the more flexible 8080 processor reduced demand for the slower 8008-based product. The company discovered that the demand for books on microcomputers was very high and published several books; the publishing business was sold in 1982.

Semi-Tech Micro PC-STM

1983


 Mfr: Semi-Tech Microelectronics
Location: Ontario, Canada
Model: STM PC
Processor: 80186
Speed: 8mhz
Op. Sys: MS-DOS version 2.11
Bits:
Internal: 16
Data: 16
RAM:
Min: 256K
Max: 512K
ROM:
Input: 83-key Keyboard
Display: Mono LCD 80x25 char
Floppy Disk: one or two internal 5.25 disk drives
Serial: 2 DB-25 RS-232C ports
Parallel: Internal Thermal Printer, plus standard Centronics port
Keyboard: Proprietary RJ-11
Other: I/O Expansion, SCSI, RJ-11 Phone Line, Acoustic Coupler, RGB Color Video, B/W Composite Video
Expansion: IBM PC I/O external bus expansion connector
Introduced: ca. 1984
Size: 20.3 x 10.8 x 4 inches ( 515 x 275 x 100 mm)
Weight: 18lbs (8.1kg)
Voltage: 110vac
Connector: Standard Line Cord
Notes: Perhaps the first MS-DOS portable with a standard SCSI port?

Semi-Tech Micro Pied Piper Communicator 1

1983


 Modelo: PPC 001
Introduced: Fall 1982
Available: March 1983
Peso: 12.5 lbs
Precio: US $1,299
CPU: Zilog Z80A @ 4MHz
RAM: 64K
Pantalla: 80 x 24 text
Ports: parallel, TV RF, composite
Almacenamiento: internal floppy drive
OS: CP/M 2.2

Sol-20 Terminal Computer

1976


Laying claim to be the first fully-assembled microcomputer with a built-in keyboard and television output, the Sol-20 was launched back in 1976.
It had more in common with the Altair 8800s and IMSAI 8080s of the day, than it did with the Apple and Commodore computers that were soon to follow, despite looking more like the latter

Steve Rusell


Space War

Tei MCS-112

Tennis For Two


William Higginbotham


 Donner Scientific Company Model 30

Vector 1

William Higginbotham


William Alfred Higinbotham (October 22, 1910 – November 10, 1994) was an American physicist.
A member of the team that developed the first nuclear bomb, he later became a leader in the nonproliferation movement.
He also has a place in the history of video games for his 1958 creation of Tennis for Two, the first interactive analog computer games and one of the first electronic games to use a graphical display.

Wynchester

Xerox Alto

1973


The Xerox Alto is a computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface (GUI), later using the desktop metaphor.
The first machines were introduced on 1 March 1973, a decade before mass-market GUI machines became available.

Xerox Daybreak

1985


The Daybreak ran the ViewPoint (later GlobalView) GUI and was used extensively throughout Xerox until being replaced by Suns and PCs. Although years ahead of its time, it was never a commercial success. The proprietary closed architecture and Xeroxs reluctance to release the Mesa development environment for general use stifled any third-party development.

A fully configured 6085 came with an 80MB hard disk, 3.7MB of RAM, a 5¼-inch floppy disk drive, an Ethernet controller, and a PC emulator card containing an 80186 CPU. The basic system comes with 1.1MB of RAM and a 10MB hard disk. It was introduced in 1985 at US$4,995 (equivalent to $12,585 in 2021).

Daybreak is the final release in the D* (pronounced D-Star) series of machines, some of which share the Wildflower instruction set architecture, designed by Butler Lampson. Machines in this series include, in order, Dolphin, Dorado, Dicentra, Dandelion, Dandetiger, Daybreak, the never-manufactured Daisy, and Dragonfly a 4-processor VLSI CPU developed at PARC and intended for a high-end printing system.

The Daybreak was sold as a Xerox 1186 workstation when configured as a Lisp machine. It was sold as the Xerox 6085 PCS (Professional Computer System) or Viewpoint 6085 PCS when sold as an office workstation running the Viewpoint system. Viewpoint is based on the Star software originally developed for the Xerox Star.

Xerox Star

1981


The Xerox Star workstation, officially named Xerox 8010 Information System, is the first commercial personal computer to incorporate technologies that have since become standard in personal computers, including a bitmapped display, a window-based graphical user interface, icons, folders, mouse (two-button), Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers, and e-mail.

Introduced by Xerox Corporation on April 27, 1981, the name Star technically refers only to the software sold with the system for the office automation market. The 8010 workstations were also sold with software based on the programming languages Lisp and Smalltalk for the smaller research and software development market.